A Stable Environment

When an infant is born prematurely it must be quickly placed in a stable life-support system if it is to survive. Air must be filtered, and temperature and humidity rigidly controlled. It must be properly fed and its life signs carefully monitored.

We may not generally think of it, but all life is quite fragile, and must have a very stable, unchanging environment for survival. The scripture says, "For in him [God] we live and move and have our being." (Acts 17:28) Without God, and the complex protection he has provided no life would be possible.

For example, if the temperature of the oceans should vary more than a relatively few degrees, they would either boil or freeze solid. In either case, all life would perish. And what is a real dilemma for the evolutionists is that the longer they extend the time that it took life to evolve, the more unlikely it is that stable conditions could have been maintained that long.

While those single-celled creatures were wiggling around in the primordial ooze, waiting to evolve into fish and finally into man, neither the land, sea, nor air became so inhospitable that everything died. But their theory demands that extremely stable conditions did continue for millions of years.

Before life began, according to their theory, all sorts of violent things took place. Giant meteors crashed into the earth. Lava floods washed over the planet. The oceans boiled, and it wasn't a very nice place to be. Then everything quieted down. A little single-celled creature invented itself and began to evolve. And for millions of years the earth was a calm and gentle place. There have been storms, floods, etc. But nothing as violent as what happens on other planets and moons, even today.

For many years scientists saw Mars as the best hope for another world capable of hosting life. Astronomers, peering at fuzzy images through their telescopes, "saw" canals on Mars. They drew pictures of them, and proudly presented them as proof of highly intelligent life there. For a long time the Martian canals were staple items for science fiction writers. Then our robot space ships surveyed the planet and landed there. The canals were imaginary. Mars is as dead as the moon. Its atmosphere is very thin, and gases freeze at its poles. Planet-wide sand storms with winds up to 300 miles per hour scour its surface. It is a sterile inhospitable world.

Venus, the Morning Star, is a beautiful planet to see. But its lovely white solidly massed clouds are corrosive acid. Due to a runaway "greenhouse" effect surface temperatures are hot enough to melt lead. Another robot was sent there, its sensitive equipment carefully encased and refrigerated. It landed on the surface, and radioed back a few pictures. Then, unable to stand the heat, it ceased operations forever.

Tornadic storms rage constantly over the surface of Jupiter, the largest planet in the solar system. A giant "Red Eye" on the planet puzzled astronomers for centuries. A space vehicle sent there showed it to be a giant whirling storm, large enough to swallow the whole earth! The planet is powerfully radioactive. In fact, had it been only a little larger it could have been a star. It could never support life. Nor could any of its many earth-sized moons.

Sometimes when we express doubt that life could exist on one place or another, someone nods wisely and says, "That's life as we know it." With an estimated 90 million life forms on earth we can say "life as we know it" covers just about everything. But they seem to be saying that life in some totally unexpected form might exist where earth life could not.

However, other than spiritual beings, which evolutionists are, of course, not willing even to consider, there are limitations to the forms life of any kind must have. Science fiction writers dream up beings of pure energy. But when scientists talk of life on other planets they generally are speaking of biological life.

Biological life must have parts with some mechanical form and function. It could not exist on the sun, for no mechanical structure could survive there. It could not exist on Pluto, a frozen world where the sun must appear as only a bright star, for life must have some movement, flow of blood or other liquids, or movement of limbs. It could not exist where high radiations would destroy its "seeds" or delicate internal structures it would certainly need.

The elements, of which life must consist, are known. It most probably would have to be carbon and oxygen based. No other elements afford the vast number of optional forms these do. Silicon has been suggested as a basis. But many do not think silicon life is possible. Thus however bizarre alien life forms might be, the possibilities are not limitless. Life "as we know it" is most likely the only kind of biological life possible.

Also if we were ever to recognize such alien life, it would have to have many of the characteristics of life on earth, design, ability to sustain and protect itself and to reproduce. It would have to have different parts with different functions. It would have to be very complex, for even the simplest of life is not really "simple". So if it is not "life as we know it", or "life as we could know it", how would we recognize it at all? Such meaningless dodges only confuse.

When God sent Moses to Egypt to free the Israelites, he encountered stiff resistance from Pharaoh, king of Egypt. God gave Moses signs to perform. The first was that when Aaron threw his staff on the ground it turned to a snake. The scriptures say that the king's magicians were able to do the same thing. Even though Aaron's rod ate theirs, Pharaoh was not convinced.

Then began the plagues of Egypt. And for a time the magicians seem to have been able to duplicate the miracles. God turned the water of the Nile to blood. But the magicians also turned water to blood. At Moses' command frogs came up from the river and invaded the land. But the magicians duplicated the feat, or seemed to, with their magic. But when Aaron touched the ground with his rod, and the dust all over Egypt became gnats, the magicians said, "This is the finger of God." (Exodus 8:19) Would that at some point science today might recognize "the finger of God"!

As scientists strive harder and harder to find how we got here, their discoveries only reveal a universe which seems to have been planned. It becomes more and more evident that life is no accident. "For this is what the LORD says--he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited--he says: 'I am the LORD, and there is no other.'" (Isaiah 45:18)

When Charles Darwin could not explain some things with his theory, he postulated imaginary "laws of life". Those most blinded by evolutionary dogma today still teach that life will just somehow spring into existence when the conditions are right. There are two objections to this. First, the right conditions for life "as we know it" are so complex that it is highly unlikely that they could exist anywhere else. Secondly, even if they do exist, the probability of life just happening is ridiculously remote.

Will the day come when what is now called Science recognizes "the finger of God"? We will try to show in this paper a glimpse of the elements of stability in earth's environment that make life possible.

A Stable Galaxy

There are many kinds of galaxies, few of which could possibly contain life. Recent pictures taken by the Hubble telescope show some galaxies in violent collision. Others are fantastically bright with seemingly impossible levels of radiation. An area free from harmful radiations and dangerous debris is necessary for any kind of life. It is estimated by some that only in one in ten galaxies are conditions safe enough that life could exist.

And not all parts even of a "good" galaxy are suitable for life. Radiation and debris are likely heavier at the center of a galaxy, where stars are more concentrated. Our solar system lies within one of two relatively safe rings lying in the outer fringes of our galaxy, the Milky Way. Such safe niches for life to exist are few by any standard, anywhere in the universe.

A Stable Sun

The sun must be of the right size. If our sun were as large as some of the giants in the sky, we would have to be located so far from it that our years could be possibly hundreds of our current years. We would have no seasons, and "seed time and harvest" would be far different, even if possible.

The sun must have the right quality of light and radiation. Strong X-rays, for example, could make life impossible. The ozone layer above our atmosphere also protects us from harmful ultra-violet radiation. The sun must give stable heat. A fluctuating sun could alternately roast and freeze a planet, destroying all life. The stability of our sun system is seen in the fact that the oceans have never boiled or frozen in thousands of years.

Our sun is 98 percent hydrogen. Because of its enormous gravity, the hydrogen is compressed. At some critical point, under enormous pressure, the hydrogen is squeezed into helium, releasing a tremendous amount of thermonuclear energy. In a hydrogen bomb all of the energy is released in one burst. But the sun expands slightly, and the hydrogen to helium reaction momentarily pauses. It is as if the sun "hums" as it goes about its business of warming the earth. It is said that if the critical balance of all the factors controlling the sun's thermonuclear reaction were off by one point in a million, it could not work.

It might be said that the sun has a thermostat which has kept it burning steadily for thousands of years. Scientists tell us that many millions of years in the future the hydrogen will be used up, and a different sequence of events will take place. I hardly think we have to worry about that!

Since World War II scientists have been trying, without success, to duplicate the controlled thermonuclear reaction of the sun on earth. No physical structure could hold the pressure needed to make the hydrogen reach the critical breakover point. So they have been trying to devise a magnetic "bottle". Enormous energy is required to hold it together, but the "bottle" keeps breaking up. Should they succeed, we will have an almost limitless source of energy with no harmful by-products.

One theory of how the solar system was formed is that the planets were thrown off by the sun as it contracted and spun faster and faster. But if the sun is 98 per cent hydrogen, only hydrogen would be thrown off, not the solid rocky planets we see now. Also neither the sun nor the planets are spinning nearly as fast as they should be if that had taken place.

Some speculate that the heavier elements were formed in the interior of giant stars, far larger than our sun. When these stars exploded, hunks of rock and metal were thrown off. But how did they get here? How did they form into planets and moons? And how did the sun capture them in the orbits they now occupy? Evolutionists have no consistent theory.

A Stable Earth

The earth's axis lies 23.5 degrees off the vertical to the plane of its orbit around the sun. This causes the seasons, tempers the winds, and causes an even distribution of heat over the largest possible land area.

What would happen if this angle were changed, even slightly? The poles would alternately freeze and melt, possibly resulting in flooding and violent storms. We can only speculate, but weather patterns would probably be far different and more severe.

Even the earth's orbit has been fine-tuned to make life possible. While the orbit is nearly circular, it is closer to the sun in the winter than in the summer. At first glance this seemingly would make the earth hotter in the winter. However, 75% or 80% of land lies in the northern hemisphere. Examine a globe to see this. Land absorbs heat better than water. In the winter the water reflects back a larger proportion of the sun's heat. The slight difference makes average annual heat intake remain constant. The average temperature on earth stays within a degree or so of the ideal. Incidentally about 85% of earth's people live in the northern hemisphere.

Nearly all the continents are approximately triangular in shape, with a point toward the south. As the seasons change, and the earth moves toward or away from the sun, the proportion of land to water directly under the sun changes gradually, making for a smooth transition in the heat cycle.

Earth is provided with a Thermostat!

The principle involved here is called "The Greenhouse Effect". Most of earth's atmosphere is oxygen and nitrogen. But a small percentage of it is carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide causes the earth to retain or dissipate heat, depending on the amount of carbon dioxide present. It works somewhat like the glass in a car's windshield. Even in winter, sometimes, we find the interior of an automobile comfortably warm. Heat is allowed to enter, but not to exit.

People, animals, automobiles and industry produce carbon dioxide and thus cause the earth to heat up. The change in temperature affects rainfall and plant growth. Plants absorb carbon dioxide and release oxygen. This cools down the earth and rejuvenates the atmosphere. Isn't that a convenient arrangement!

The rain washes calcium carbonate into the oceans where it is used by shell and other fish. As these die and sink to the bottom, their shells are forced into the interior of the earth by the movement of continental plates. The calcium carbonate is broken down by the extreme heat of the earth's interior. Carbon dioxide is released into the air through fissures and volcanoes. The increase in carbon dioxide causes an increase in earth temperature. Hotter weather stimulates plant growth, the earth cools down, and the cycle is repeated.

This fine tuning of all these mechanisms keeps earth's temperature within very narrow limits and functions as a thermostat! Some scientists conjecture that even a one degree rise in average worldwide temperature could drastically change our climate. We have seen that the sun has a thermostat, and now another thermostat is found in the earth! Do we see here "the finger of God"?

The Continuously Habitable Zone (CHZ)

Earth's "Big Thermostat" must receive a delicate balance of heat to keep the greenhouse effect working. Too much heat, as on Venus, would defeat it. Too little, as on Mars, likewise makes it impossible. The CHZ is a narrow band around the sun, which is the only place in the solar system where this cycle of carbon dioxide to oxygen and back, is possible.

The earth, and possibly Mars, lies in this zone. Scientists now recognize that life is probably impossible anywhere else in our solar system. The precise balancing of heat also determines how much ice will remain frozen at the poles. This controls the depth of the oceans. If earth's temperature rises, more ice would melt, and the oceans would rise. God's provisions for us are truly awesome . But there is more!

The Earth's Magnetic Field

A deadly "wind" of high velocity particles is constantly emitted by the sun. These particles have been detected by experiments conducted on the moon. Constant bombardment by these would disrupt the delicate genetic structure of all life forms causing disruptive mutations or even the destruction of all life. Astronauts on the moon experienced flashes of light when they closed their eyes. It is believed that these particles were striking their optic nerves. Women of child-bearing age would be particularly at risk in space.

But the earth has a magnetic field which deflects these particles. As the wind approaches our planet the particles pass smoothly around it. Nothing else could do it. We see the "battle" in the aurora, the northern and southern lights which appear as the solar wind strikes our upper atmosphere.

But why would God create a danger against which he has to protect us? Nothing God does is without purpose. We may not always understand it, but sometimes we can. It is thought that the solar wind itself may also protect us by colliding with even higher velocity cosmic ray particles from outer space, thus preventing most of them from reaching the earth. Some of these powerful particles are not stopped even by the giant bulk of the entire earth. The gentle but vast wind of solar particles may intercept most of them.

The Earth's Atmosphere

Our atmosphere is mostly nitrogen with about 20% oxygen. This provides a safe environment for life. The atmosphere is thick enough that it absorbs most incoming meteorites, burning them up before they reach the earth. A thin ozone layer in the upper atmosphere deflects the sun's harmful ultra-violet rays. Is it an accident that the atmosphere provides us just what we need?

The Earth-Moon System

No one knows how the moon got into its orbit except to say that God put it there. Isaac Asimov, a well known science writer, who was no friend of those who believe in a Creator God, has said that the moon is a celestial freak: "by all cosmic laws she should not be circling the earth."

No other planet has a satellite so massive in relationship to the world it circles. Theories of how the moon came to be where it is are interesting in that they show how completely unable scientists are to explain its presence there. Someone has rather facetiously speculated that the moon is either the daughter, the wife, or the sister of the earth. The "daughter" theory is that it sprang from the Pacific ocean basin. This has been rejected because the moon is of lighter composition than the earth, and because just how it could have been torn from the earth is not clear.

The "wife" theory is that it was captured by the earth as it roamed through space. The problem here is that such a capture is well nigh impossible, physically or mathematically. A body in space approaching another body will either hit it or bend around it, following a mirror image of the path of approach. Only if something hit the moon at exactly the right moment in time, the right direction, etc. could it have been stopped and drawn into orbit. The probability of this happening by accident is nil.

The "sister" theory is that earth and moon were formed at the same time from colliding debris in space. Among the objections to this theory are how the two bodies came to be so different in composition. Why is the earth of heavier composition than the moon? Did the lighter rocks gravitate to one body and the heavier to the other? Also the questions of the nearly perfect circular orbit of the moon, and the fact that the moon always shows but one face to the earth while the earth rotates in relation to the moon, still remain.

The moon is the same apparent diameter as the sun, as is seen during eclipses when the orb of the moon exactly covers the face of the sun. This may be nothing more than God's "signature" to his perfect work. He did make them as complementary lights to govern the day and the night. (Gen. 1:16) But it also points up the fact that the moon could just as easily be in an orbit closer to the earth than it is. If it were, the tide could be a wave of water following the moon around the earth, completely flooding all land.

But God placed dynamic limits on the sea as the book of Job poetically describes. Job 38:8-11 "Who shut up the sea behind doors when it burst forth from the womb, .... when I fixed limits for it and set its doors and bars in place, when I said, 'This far you may come and no farther; here is where your proud waves halt'?" He also measured the amount of water in the sea, thus further limiting its domain. Isa 40:12 "Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, or with the breadth of his hand marked off the heavens? Who has held the dust of the earth in a basket, or weighed the mountains on the scales and the hills in a balance?" See also Job 28:25.

Clearly the cosmic dimensions and dynamic balance of the earth are no accident.

Two eminent Russian scientists have advanced the theory that the moon is actually a hollowed-out spaceship placed in orbit by ancient astronauts! ("Our Mysterious Spaceship Moon", by Don Wilson.) It has walls 20 miles thick, and is filled with very highly technical machinery and supplies. An astro-physicist, Peter Margan of Yugoslavia, has announced his belief that the moon is the skull of a giant space creature with openings for eyes, nose, and mouth! It came here, parked itself in orbit, and died! It is amazing what men will come up with to avoid recognizing "the finger of God".

Our moon is in a stable almost perfectly circular orbit. If it were not, the gravitational fluctuation as it approached and receded from the earth could cause disastrous floods. The moons of other planets circle in the planes of their equators. However, the plane of the orbit of the moon is very close to that of the earth around the sun. Thus the moon, like the sun, passes directly over most parts of the earth at one time or another.

No other planet has a moon relatively as large as ours. This too has its benefits. The moon, which controls our tides and provides light, because of its size also causes a land "tide". The land rises very slightly as the moon passes over it. In effect the moon "massages" the earth, relieving tensions beneath the surface which could otherwise unleash terrible earthquakes much worse than we now experience.

Most meteorites which strike the earth are burned up by its atmosphere before they reach the surface. Few cosmic bodies are so large that they cannot be burned up as they enter the atmosphere. But the moon has been struck by millions of bodies so huge that had they struck the earth there would be widespread devastation. No one knows why the earth, with its greater gravity, has not been hit by such large bodies more times than the moon.

Scientists in the early days of our space program speculated that the surface of the moon was covered with a deep layer of dust produced by the continual bombardment of millions of meteorites. This dust, fine as talcum, might treacherously swallow our space craft or astronauts venturing out on its surface. An article in the March, 1964 National Geographic, page 357, pictures a moon lander, as then contemplated, sitting on the moon over a deep dust crater. It was speculated that retro-jets, required for a safe landing, would create this crater. Large footpads were placed on the lander as a precaution against this possibility. But while dusty, the moon's surface proved quite solid, as the astronauts quickly found out. Why the dust layer was so thin became another unsolved "mystery" of the moon.

The dust on the surface of the moon is full of microscopic glass beads which make it a perfect reflecting surface. Light striking these beads is reflected directly back. Thus the full moon shines with particular brightness. The general color of the moon is gray, which makes reflected moonlight to be white. Also astronauts found the surface of the moon had been burned, as by a great heat flash, so that there are many shiny reflective spots on the moon in addition to the beads. Again these facts relate to the purpose for which it was made by God. It is difficult, if not impossible, to avoid the conclusion that the moon was placed there by other than natural means.

Astronomers in France have recently created a computer model of the earth-moon system, to see what would happen without the moon. They discovered that the earth could not maintain the precise angle of 23.5 degrees to the plane of its orbit around the sun. Over a period of time it could wobble as much as 85 degrees, thus causing drastic changes in weather and climate which would make life as we know it impossible. The moon acts somewhat as a giant flywheel or gyro-stabilizer to keep the earth in its orbit.

The Earth's Ecosystem

Darwin pictured all life as in deadly competition. "Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows. There is grandeur in this view of life...." Origin, page 450. Actually nature shows marvelous harmony and cooperation in all its aspects. Thousands of species depend on other species in symbiotic relationships. Bees and many flowers, for example, are completely dependent on each other, and could not have evolved separately.

Darwin rather simplistically conceived of multiplied millions of life forms, each with its millions of interworking parts, independently evolving into higher forms. Little attention was paid to the fact that biological life itself is a unit, almost as if the earth as a whole were a complex living organism. A change to any part of life on earth ripples through the whole system. The absurdity of the whole concept is further seen in the fact that intermediate links between the different species do not exist. There are no "missing links".

In nature, no species seeks the total annihilation of another. Indeed it would destroy itself if it did, for it would destroy its own food supply and upset the entire system. Those which live on other species generally destroy first the weak, the old, and the sick, thus in the long run, benefiting the whole.

If evolution be true, how did fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts and animal flesh evolve to be so absolutely necessary for all animal life? Why didn't the deer evolve flesh not so tasty to the lion and the tiger? The Bible says, "The race is not to the swift or the battle to the strong, nor does food come to the wise or wealth to the brilliant or favor to the learned; but time and chance happen to them all." (Eccl. 9:11) Darwin's "Survival of the Fittest" is destroyed by this verse alone.

Due to the intricate and complex interdependence of plants and animals, it was necessary that the ecosystem be developed as a unit within a fairly short time. The idea of an age for plants to "evolve", then another age for fish, and another for land animals, raises more problems than it solves. For as each kind or species was introduced it had to fit into the whole system. The equilibrium had to be maintained. This would require an almost infinite number of simultaneous changes to the whole system each time something new occurred.

There are complex restraints on the system as a whole, which had to be protected. An example is the delicate balance of carbon dioxide in the air by which earth temperature is regulated within narrow bounds, as explained previously. This whole cycle requires that plants and animals exist together. It is inconceivable that this complex system could have come into existence after plants and animals had already "evolved".

Natural Selection does not allow for the development of organisms or systems of only POTENTIAL VALUE. It cannot assess the future good or harm that might come from some accidental, momentarily advantageous mutation. At any moment it might blindly enter into a dead end course of sure destruction. It is far easier to believe that the complex interwoven ecosystem upon which our lives depend was created at the command of God than to believe in the almost infinite number of separate and unrelated "accidents", any one of which could have upset the essential balance of the whole system and brought ALL life to an end.

A case in point is man himself. "Taking charge of our own evolution", we have brought the whole system of life on this planet to the brink of extinction. Communism, blindly pursuing its goals of "social evolution" at a mind-boggling cost in human misery and treasure, fortunately produced the seeds of its own self-destruction. Technological advances intended to improve our lives, have brought over-population and the destruction or pollution of irreplaceable natural resources. And they have also brought us all but insolvable social and moral problems. "O LORD, I know that the way of man is not in himself: It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps." Jeremiah 10:23.

The International Bill of Rights, ratified in part or whole by most nations on earth, emphasizes the importance of the dignity of the individual, contrary to the self-defeating evolutionary doctrine of "Might Makes Right".

The Expanding Universe

Astronomers tell us that the universe is expanding. They liken the universe to a balloon in which the stars are spots on the balloon. As it expands, the spots move away from each other. The farther spots would seem to move away from us faster than those close by. Thus they believe they can calculate the distance of stars and galaxies by what is called the red shift. The light from more distant stars is shifted more toward the red end of the spectrum. As they approach the relative speed of light, they just vanish because their light cannot reach us.

The astronomer George Hubble proposed an argument explaining why the universe must be expanding. Imagine a sphere around the earth large enough to include a number of stars. All of these would transmit a small amount of heat to the earth. Now increase the size of this sphere to include twice as many stars. The heat would be doubled. Each increase in this manner would add heat until the sky became solid white and every spot in the universe was extremely hot. But because the stars increase in speed the further they are from us, a point is reached where they are no longer visible. Thus the sky is black at night, and we don't fry! That's nice, isn't it!

The concept of an expanding universe poses a real problem for the evolutionists. If it is true, then the universe is emptying itself. But like a bucket of water, you cannot keep emptying it forever. Thus it must have had a beginning. And it must have an end.

One explanation, now only an embarrassing footnote in the history of science, is called "The Steady State Theory". As the universe expands hydrogen gas pops into existence throughout space. Where does it come from? From nowhere. One moment its not there, the next it is. As this gas accumulates, it forms into new stars and so the process continues. This theory replaces the single creative action of God with a vast number of self-creating hydrogen atoms.

Another theory is called "The Big Bang Theory". In the beginning all matter was concentrated into an incredibly dense spot, no bigger than a period on this page. For some reason it exploded, and from it came all the stars in the universe.

A problem with this is, "Where did the little dot come from?" Recently, in a deliberate attempt to get around the embarrassing question of the "Seed (or dot) Maker", scientists have speculated that the little dot could be compressed until it becomes nothing. If we can compress the whole universe into a dot, why stop there? We can compress the dot still further until there just isn't anything. They hasten to assure us that this "vacuum" is no ordinary nothingness. It is on its way to becoming something. Again we have an act of creation out of nothing. Some hope it will get rid of God, but it leaves a lot to our imagination and faith.

Scientists speculate that there are bodies in the universe called "black holes", which are so dense and their gravitational attraction so powerful that even light cannot escape. Wouldn't the little dot of the Big Bang theory be such a black hole? If so, how could it overcome its own gravity enough to explode?

It is argued that matter did not follow current physical laws at that time. Thus it wouldn't be a black hole. It was only after the explosion that natural laws began to operate as they do now. Fine. At some imaginary point then, when natural laws began to operate, why wasn't everything still close enough together to collapse into a black hole? Why wasn't it "The Big Burp" rather than "The Big Bang"?

The Anthropic Principle

Some scientists are coming to the conclusion that all of nature shows evidence of having been designed with mankind in mind. This is called the anthropic principle. And with this the Bible agrees. Isaiah 45:18 "For this is what the LORD says--he who created the heavens, he is God; he who fashioned and made the earth, he founded it; he did not create it to be empty, but formed it to be inhabited."

The fundamental forces of nature, gravity, forces that bind atoms together, etc., are so delicately balanced that even a slight difference could cause disruption of the whole universe.

Additionally, many things in nature just "happen" to work out for our good. Ice for example, floats because water expands as it freezes. Most materials contract. If this were not true, ice would sink to the bottom of lakes and oceans and they would freeze solid.

God made animals to fear man, and avoid him. Otherwise even small animals could be a menace to man. Gen 9:2 "The fear and dread of you will fall upon all the beasts of the earth and all the birds of the air, upon every creature that moves along the ground, and upon all the fish of the sea; they are given into your hands." Generally animals attack man only when provoked, or in self defense. Otherwise, even the strongest avoid us.

And so, as the scriptures say, "The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands. Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night they display knowledge." (Psalm 19:1f). Truly, "The fool says in his heart, 'There is no God.'" (Psalm 14:1).

Bill Carrell; 3693 Vanderwood Drive; Memphis, TN 38128 (901) 372-8089